Cybersecurity incident response is not only about handling an incident – it’s also about preparing for any possible incident and learning from it. Here are six steps for a successful and efficient cybersecurity incident response.


The first step, known as preparation, is the only step that can be done without any incident happening; therefore, it is good to invest a lot of time in it before anything bad happens in the company.

  • Defining policies, rules and practices to guide security processes.
  • Develop incident response plans for every kind of incident that might target the company.
  • Have a precise communication plan: people to reach internally and externally, how to reach them, etc.
  • Have incident response tools ready and up to date at any time. This also means spending time to test new tools, selecting new ones and maintaining knowledge about them. Also, all tooling should be in a jump bag that would be ready and available for incident handlers as soon as there is a need to physically move to other places for incident handling.
  • Do regular trainings on simulated incidents, to ensure every member and every mandatory outsider knows how to react and handle cases.


In this phase, an incident is discovered or reported to the team. Several actions are done here, in particular:

  • Identifying the incident precisely, and carefully checking it is actually a real incident and not a false detection.
  • Defining the scope of the incident and its investigation.
  • Setting up monitoring.
  • Detecting incidents by correlating and analyzing multiple data from endpoints (monitoring activity, event logs, etc.) and on the network (analyzing log files, error messages, etc.).
  • Assigning incident handlers to the incident.
  • Start to document the case.


The goal in this phase is to limit the current damage resulting from the incident and prevent any further damage.

The first step is generally to prevent the attacker from communicating any more with the compromised network. This can be done by isolating network segments or devices affected by the incident.

The second move is to create backups and preserve evidence of the incident for further investigations if the incident is criminal.

The final step is to apply fixes to affected systems and devices in order to allow them to be back online. It means patching vulnerabilities, removing fraudulent accesses, while preparing the next phase.

Since there is always a chance that several backdoors are in place and one or more has not been found, it is important to do things in a timely manner here and quickly move to the next phase.


The moment has come to remove all found artifacts of the incident and make sure it cannot happen again.

You might think it’s enough to delete all discovered malware and backdoors, change all user passwords, apply security fixes and patch all systems. It is of course the most comfortable and less expensive way for a company to come back to a normal situation, but it is not recommended. Depending on the way the network is built, what log files it has, what log files it might miss, what log files might have been tampered with by an attacker, how stealth some malware has been, it is possible that an attacker might come back to a system restored this way.

The recommended way here to eradicate all badness from the incident is actually to fully reinstall systems that have been affected, from a safe image, and immediately have the latest security fixes deployed to it.


It is time to bring all the systems back into production, after verifying that they are all patched and hardened where possible.

In some cases, it might mean fully reinstalling the Active Directory and change all employees’ passwords, and do whatever possible to avoid the same incident from happening again.

Careful monitoring needs to be defined and started here, for a defined period of time, to observe any abnormal behavior.

Lessons learned

After several days or weeks spent on an incident, it certainly feels good to know it has been handled properly and that the threat is definitely gone. But a last effort needs to be done, and it is one of the most important: the lessons-learned phase.

Shortly after the recovery is done, and everything is back to normal, all the people involved on the incident should meet and discuss it.

  • What have they learned?
  • What has been difficult?
  • What could be done better next time a similar incident happens?

All documentation written during the incident should be completed, and answer as many questions as possible regarding the what-where-why-how-who questions.

Every incident should be seen as an opportunity to improve the whole incident handling process in the company.

Goliath stands ready to help you defend against and limit the impact of a Cyber Attack!!!


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